ESU are the "Efficient Systems of Utility", or systems of production and power consumption which connect directly the producer and the final consumer. This is their main advantage.
This new capability is convenient for those who want to make photovoltaic systems without their own consumption (and of course without incentives, which ended in 2013).
Because ESU are convenient? Because are systems in which PV directly supplying companies, factories, energy-intensive facilities, etc ... "without obligation to connect third parties." That is, if the manufacturer first sold to the GSE (the Electricity Services Operator) and GSE selling purchased energy in the electricity market generally, now the producer can sell directly to the consumer (usually large companies), with the advantage of bypassing the network, intermediaries and some of their operating costs.
So: eliminating an intermediary, the ESU has agreed to the manufacturer, who sells power directly to its customers, both consumer who buys directly from the manufacturer at an affordable price.
ESU systems are designed to facilitate and encourage self-directed and self-consumption on-site energy produced from renewable sources. There is no mention here of domestic plants in home environments, on the roof of the house, but large ground-mounted systems whose production is conveyed directly to major users (factories, energy-intensive companies, etc ..) that can buy energy directly produced on site without going through the power grid. It 's a system designed to promote self-sufficiency and to facilitate local energy distributed generation.
Why should an ESU agreed manufacturer and end user
First to understand what and why should an ESU agreed both the producer and the final consumer of energy, let's see some data on the cost of electricity in Italy.
According to data from Bloomberg New Energy Finance the Italian electricity costs an average of about 0.25 to 0.30 dollars per kwh.
The energy price that we pay in the bill, however, is not the actual price of electricity produced and sold in Italy. With the current electric bill, in fact, we pay essentially four main cost items. Not only the actual energy drawn from the grid, but also: network services, system costs and fee.
The former includes the prices of transport, distribution and measurement of electricity. The seconds are fixed or proportional costs to fuel consumption, required by law and to finance some incentives, reconstruction and upgrading of the overall energy system. The third ones, fee, including duty, VAT, etc ..
All of this produce a doubling of costs of electricity in the bill respect its actual market price.
In the traditional electricity bill 45% of the cost is related to the transmission, distribution, dispatching, taxes, fees, etc ....
Only 55% is actually represented by the cost of electricity
An ESU can be formed by the same entity that produces and consumes energy self-produced. Or it can be constituted by two different entities: one that produces and the other that consumes the energy produced on site.
In the first case the holder invests capital that will be amortize over time. In the second case, the producer is responsible for "making the investment" and then sell the energy produced to the end user.
What are the benefits for the producer
An ESU agrees to the manufacturer because it is able to sell the energy produced with solar directly to the end user and at a higher price than the wholesale market.
The economic value of the energy sold directly to the customer is in fact greater than what would be the price of withdrawal by a wholesaler.
In this case, the instantaneous consumption is convenience both for manufacturer and the end customer and, by entering into a long-term contract between producer and consumer, the owner of the plant has the ability to sell over the years all services related in some way to the electrical system (the technical term "cross-selling" and "integrated").
What are the benefits for the end user
An ESU agree to the end user because it can buy electricity at prices below the market prices: the gross cost of the energy is made between 0.25 and 0.28 euro per kWh. Constituting an ESU a business owner can lower your energy bill immediately and without any investment in terms of resources and time.